Stats Of Hits
With regard to
August 28, 2017 and my attendance at the Callander Public Meeting September 21, 2017.
Shortly after this meeting a friend called me up, came to visit, we chatted and one of his questions was "When did the Golden Lake area become a reserve" I found this explanation which I have included below as part of a kind of an
followings are copies of the first 4 paragraphs in italics
On reading this I was struck by
"Algonquins of Golden Lake in 1890."
"It is our belief that we occupied North America since time immemorial. There is archaeological evidence indicating Algonquins occupied the Ottawa Valley for at least the last 10,000 years.
Our first European contact was with Samuel de Champlain in 1603. Numerous years after, Algonquins became allies with the French. At the conquest of 1759 when the French were conquered by the British, the British specified in the 1763 Royal Proclamation that ‘the Indians should not be molested on their hunting grounds’, meaning we could only sell our lands after a public council for that purpose was held and that our lands could not be sold until they were ceded [surrendered]."
"We never surrendered our land. The government took or purchased our land from other First Nations that had no claim to the land. We petitioned these purchases and the Crown acknowledged that we never entered into treaties, nor taken part in any surrendering of lands"
"In 1774, the Quebec Act extended the boundaries of Quebec, which included areas of our land and in the 1791 Constitution Act, the Ottawa River became the diving line between Upper and Lower Canada. This placed our land and people under two separate government administrations."
Following are my efforts to confirm my suppostions as my comments to this Draft EER with it's deadline of Octobeer 17, 2017
how similar paragraph 2 was to this EER's 1.1.1 Historical Presence (a continious mantra),
their interpretation of the 1763 Royal Proclamation's Quebec boundary, (the 1774 Quebec Act was ridiculous) but I have some little knowledge of the 1791 Constitution Act redefining the border of Quebec down the centre of the Ottawa River. Neither act really ammended the 1763 Royal Proclamation regarding what was considered "Indian land" -- If either had then I think that there would have been no treaties at all.
paragraph #3's We never surrendered our land. The government took or purchased our land from other First Nations that had no claim to the land.
really got me wondering
because circa 1975 Bert Saunders gave a new book "Nipissing from Brule to Booth" by Murray Leatherdale to my sister which have I read and reread many times:
So I knew the story of the Beaver Wars and it's outcome particularly the truth about the southerly shores of the Ottawa river being the easterly boundary of the now extinct Huron Confederacy
that the land was taken over by the Haudenosaunee (Iroguois Confederation) from the land south of the St Lawrence River, Lake Ontario and Lake Erie and held that land for 4 decades.
that after having troubles with these interlopers the Ojibway confederation, along with a number of surviving Hurons, drove these people back south of the current US border with the result that they retook that land via Rite of conquest
they, along with the assimilated Huron Survivors are now known as the Missauga and Chippewa Ojibway First Nations who stayed in Southern Ontario and kept those Iroquois marauders from coming back so IT IS MY BELIEF THAT THEY HAD EVERY RIGHT TO THIS LAND!
Which, if correct, means that the previous Treaties and surrendered lands between these First Nations did have the right to these land so the entire current Algonquin Land Claim may not be valid!
The following map was taken from Federal Aborigianal Affairs documentation and shows this along with dates of those previous treaties and their surrended Lands.
Quotes (in aqua) were taken from that Draft Environmental Evaluation Report Proposed Settlement Lands Made Under The Algonquin Land Claim Declaration Order August 28, 2017 and I have included my comments, queries and statement in purple
I have included my commented copy of pages x and xi which I will discuss for you perusal.
(page x) - Ontario seems to admit that the AOO claims borders on the incredulous!
"PREAMBLE" (page xi..xii) confirms this
- page 1 starts out with Ontario's disclaimer yet again
- 1.1.1 Historical Presence (pdf 15&16)
The following statements seem to be somewhat confusing with some prevarication but there are some truths meaning there are questions!
page 1 paragraph 5
"For thousands of years, the Algonquin people have occupied, lived on, defended and utilized the resources in the watersheds of what are now known as the Ottawa River and the Mattawa River.
page 1 paragraph 6
"The Algonquins have identified the lands encompassed within the watersheds of the Ottawa River and Mattawa River as their Traditional Territory. The Algonquins assert that this has been their territory since time immemorial."
During Jacques Cartier's 3 voyages to Canada 1534 to 1542
he only encountered Saint Lawrence Iroquoians
and following is a map of their pre contact distribution.
But that does not preclude the Algonquian (hunter/gather) peoples
have existed all around these Iroquoian peoples and had a very different lifestyle.
Cartier's group never met them except for the MicMacs - New Brunswick?
It is logical that there was interaction between them.
page 1 paragraph 7
"Substantial archaeological evidence exists indicating Algonquin occupation and use "
I won't comment on this because of the secrecy directed toward the average tax paying Ontario citizen by the federal and Ontario governments but despite this I have collected and reviewed some interesting archaeological reports (some covering 5 to 4 thousand years ago) indicating pretty advanced civilizations
for the rest of the detailed information regarding regarding lifestyles, habits, living, interaction amongst themselves I have gotten much from the United States very little in Canada!
The only other alternatives that I and other NON AOOO people have is to
rely on is textual documents that indicates any archaeological evidence of Algonquin residency on the land of this particular land is less that 200 years old and/or since the AOOO members left Oka! For that I had to rely on:
So perhaps you will understand when I question the validity of this Algonquin Land Claim and this draft environment assessment report. Perhaps a comprehensive study or audit by some impartial organization is indicated.
page 2 1st paragraph
"The first recorded European contacts in Algonquin Territory occurred in 1613 when Samuel de Champlain encountered the Algonquin Chief Tessouat, who was controlling the Ottawa River waterway from an Algonquin village at present-day Morrison Island (near Pembroke, Ontario), collecting tolls from all who wanted access along the River."
Basque fishermen were there before Jacgues Cartier "claimed what is now Canada for France" over 79 years earlier than this.
Because of animosity between the French and the Haudenosaunee - trade between the French and people who lived on the Great Lakes used the only safe route - the
Ottawa Mattawa Nipissing French River route but Toussouat's restricted travel on that route with tolls prompted the French Colonial Government to adjust Quebec's Western and Northern boundaries to eliminate blockage of that type of main transportation corridor. The British kept in for the same rationale. I think it is still valid or at least has never been struck down or taken off the books.
Here is what this boundary looks like over AOOO's claim
There seems to be a reason why tolls only occurred at this location. Both times Champlain traversed this route he was transported by Hurons (so were most of the missionaries later.) I now think that:
The fur trade route portages left from the west shore of the Ottawa about 9km above the mouth of the Bonnechare River and traverse a valley and stream with a series of ponds and portages to Muskart Lake for 20km. It then went by water over Muskrat Lake and River for 35 km to launch once again in the Ottawa ( I think all this was on Huron territory) - a few kilometres upstream from there was the Algonguin Toll on Algonquin territory to get around some heavy rapids.
the northern shore of the Ottawa River and Allumette Island was the west boundary of the Algonquin's Homeland.
and the southern shore of the Ottawa River was the eastern boundary of Huron Confederacy's Homeland.
Here is an overview image of that:
click for a pdf
Page 2 2nd paragraph #1
"The Algonquins suffered substantial losses from European introduced epidemics beginning in the 15th century"
This is true. After 1492 Columbus happened. Ssoon after other Europeans came but it was mostly the Spanish that introduced these diseases to the North American indigenous people who suffered and had their very numbers were seriously depleted.
Most affected were Iroquoian peoples who were primarily farmers whose culture and habits made for close quarters (large stockaded villages with long-houses with many residents) which made wide spread infection much worse.)
The hunter/gatherers such as the Algonquian culture fared a little better they lived in small single falmily groups only meeting with the rest of the Algonquians, nieghbours and clans, in the summer usually on an island. But they were still affected.
It is possible and even likely that the St. Lawrence Iroquian peoples suffered terrible loss from these diseases and consistent war with other Iroquian peoples south of the Saint Lawrence - Encyclopaedia Britanic's web page shows this driving them into the areas of the Huron Confederacy (perhaps starting that) just beyond the southern shores Ottawa River where they assimulated populating the whole of the Southern Ontario peninsula.
It is just as likely that the Algonquian peoples populated the space left behind right up to the northern shores of the Ottawa River just before the time of Champlain. The Ottawawa river would be a natural boundary between these two peoples.
Page 2 2nd paragraph #2
"further by attacks from Iroquois warriors in the mid-17th century. During this time of unrest, many Algonquin families retreated from the Ottawa River, taking refuge in remote sections of their territory as well as at missions as far west as Lake Nipigon or to the east at Sillery near Quebec City, Trois Rivières and Montreal Island."
Those attacks from Iroquois warriors in the mid-17th century was
called the Beaver Wars considered one of the most brutal bloodiest genocides, in the history of North America.
Little has been written about the Algonquin in this war except for the
I have no idea how many of these Algonquian people sought refuge at any of those above mentioned missions during the period of this war but I do know without a doubt that as far west as Lake Nipigon is wrong because no Algonquin ever went to Lake Nipigon and there never was an established mission there during this entire conflict.
the Allumette Island massacre,
From the Jesuit relations #35 Father Raganeaux stated that
"When I ascended the great River, only thirteen vears ago. I had seen it bordered with large numbers of people of the Algonquisn tongue...These...looked upon themselves as the Gods of the earth, for the reason that nothing was lacking to them in the richness of their fisherics, their hunting=grounds...and the traffic to which they carried on with allied nations; add to which they were the terror of their enemies" ... "they are people wiped off from the face of the earth."
There was also an Iroquois raid on the Montreal River fort but it seems no one was killed and those Algonquins were smart enough to go further into their territories.
This proves that they did live along the Ottawa! And that the Ottawa River was probably a natural boundary between Huron and Algonquin.
Writings and history (particularly the Jesuit Relations) regarding this area abruptly dried up during this era because the killings/routing
of the priests and officials
However there was one writer George Copway who did chronicle this terrible period and the removal of the Haudenosaunee from Southern Ontario by the Ojibway and Huron survivors so we do have some idea of what went on between 1650 and 1700. I have extracted the relevant chapters (6 p72 to 8-p95) that deals with this war from his book "Ojibway Nation" and took extracts which follow:
"1608 Champlain went with Hurons against Haudenosaunee"
The Hurons were "one nation occupied the whole tract of land about the three lakes Ontario, Erie, and that which still bears the name of the Nation. They formed a confederation of five Nations."
"Huron homeland was up to the shores of Mah-ah-moo-see-be (Ottaway River)"
i.e. their eastern boundaries were the shores of the Ottawa River and that is the land this AOOO is claiming.
The above is why I believe that the Current Algonquin Land claim is on HURON TERRITORY which became, by right of conquest the land of the OJIBWAY plus the HURON SURVIVORS who even prior to the 1923 Wilson Treaty became known as the Ontario based Mississauga and Chippewa First Nations (and the Huron survivors must have been assimilated into these nations and returned to their homeland.) and after reading this the Golden Lake statement
"In 1873, after we petitioned several times for our own land, the 1745-acre Golden Lake Reserve was purchased from Ontario by Canada with our money".
leaves me even more incredulous!
It wasn't until 2 days ago as a wrap up of researching this topic for this EER
that I once again resource and completely read read Thwaites interpretation of the Jesuits Recollections #35 and found that there were Algonquian people on the Ottawa River (despite serious lack of time I am trying to weave some of that in.) I now believe that these people were there on the Ottawa River , that many lost their lives and that the rest fled to missions for refuge! So I now more convinced that Ottawa River was the natural border between the Hurons and the Algonquins which shows on Carter's Map outlining the 1763 Royal Proclamation - NAC n0121078k taken from the NAC
I have trouble understanding this "modern treart and land claim" particularly the AOOO (Algonquins Of Ontario Organizatio) because of my real life experiences (close Algonquin friends or descendents of ) and the reading of Algonquian lifestyles - following is page 5 Frank Specks 1913 report
And from the Renfrew County and District Aboriginal Friendship Centre web page - history
because this varies so much from the above claim in progress "but they continued to make regular seasonal visits to a number of Catholic missions around the island of Montreal where they remained for a few months every summer" which seems to me to be so contrary to the above Algonquin ideals!
This has caused me to wonder if long term residency at the Oka and other missions changed this life style with the families staying housed and fed in the said missions while the men went on various hunting trapping areas and/or followed the lumbermen (excellent job and money making opportunities) as chronicled in Colin Rankins Journal and Gwyneth Jones Report) up the Ottawa River for the winter and returning in the summer to be with their families.
J R Millers report Great White Father Knows Best : Oka and the Land Claim Process gave me some clues and dates and in the first 9 pages of >
I did find some some insight (even though much of this report is about the Mohawk (Iroquian) segment) along with that it gave me some chronology of when and why of the Algonquian's leaving that area and that the creation of 2 "Reservations - Golden Lake and Riviere Desert" that did not come about through treaties but rather by deep and consistent discontent!
page 2 3rd paragraph
The British King George III issued a Royal Proclamation in 1763 which guaranteed the Indian Nations that they would be protected in their hunting grounds and that their lands would be not be taken from them without their permission
I don't think the AOOs really understands the 1763 Proclamation because most of what they are demanding "hunting grounds and their lands" is actually within the old boundaries of French Province of Quebec (these were adjusted making this area "common ground" by the French Colonial Government circa 1635 to frustrate Tessouat and his Band of Algonquins on Allumette and Morrison Islands along with others to permanently get rid of all toll stations that restrict access to all those who use the Ottawa river for transportation)
In 1763 Britain simply kept those boundaries in the 1763 Royal Proclamation.
Perhaps another independent (not me, I am not a legal expert of any kind) would look to and ensure whether of that 1763 Proclamation border is still effective and relevant!
Historica Canada's Royal Proclamation of 1763
There are other things that I don't find right because this claim overlaps at least 5, perhaps 6 existing and completed treaties (cessions) that I feel must be dealt with before proceding:
shown on the map below
This was well outlined and I expect irrefutable but somewhat bloated
I copied then condensed this simply by taking some of the extraneous stuff out.
You can make up your own mind from this!
My questions are:
How do Treaties overlap Treaties?
Doesn't this need the permission of all the people that signed these treaties to make a change like that valid?
Has the 1763 Royal Proclamation and it's map ever been changed and by what legislation?
I am convinced that all the problems of Oka Mohawks and Algonquins was caused by the Federal and Quebec governments and I have to wonder why the Ontario tax-paying citizens have to pay and give up access to Crown Land to correct this
I QUIT PAYING ATTENTION TO THIS MISSIVE AFTER 9 PAGES because I figure that since the 1867 CONFEDERATION creation of Canada and the New Province of Ontario
things had been pretty well ironed out with the Algonquin and Nipissing natives so I haven't bothered with the rest of this article.
I simply can't see why the Federal and Ontario Governments want to create another reserve or perhaps a Fiefdom of an Organization!
Besides I am out of time for this ridiculous deadline so I must forward this missive now, warts and all!
Until someone convinces me that this AOOO land claim is valid I see little use in commenting on other items of this draft Environmental Assessment Report!
Thanking you for reading this, I am,
121 Timmins Street
North Bay, Ontario P1B 4k2